Saturday, February 22, 2020
Crito Plato - Essay Example He knew that the only way of making better amends was by making peace with himself rather than keep on running yet he was already past seventy years. He opined that the best thing for Crito was not to follow or care about the opinions of the many but to adhere to the law. Crito adamantly believes that the opinion of the many has led to the evils of the world, and the way Socrates was treated was a show enough that they were lost of good opinion (Ibid. 51). Agreeably, Socrates seems to think more about what will happen to him and his friends who are willing to risk their lives to have him get out jail. I believe that the best thing as Socrates notes is the adherence to the law. This is something that many do not agree with because corruption has infiltrated many authoritative figures, and the best way of making sure that justice is not served is by offering a little money to achieve personal goals. This also fails to achieve the notable aspects of the society that could allow the world to make better changes and allow the rule of law to take more precedence in dealing with issues within the society. The reflection given by Socrates against Crito is that the wise will always make peace within and not fear what the majority think or feel. They will do anything that is within the law even it if is unjust and may lead to death. Socrates holds on morals that Crito seems to question, but agrees that Socrates is truthful in many of the issues discussed. Socrates wisely listens to what Crito has to say and makes choices based on his volition. He sees the plot as very tempting, but also recognizes the fact that the greater the zeal, the greater the danger (Ibid. 53). He knows that if the plan backfires, many more will be put to hang, and that would make lesser sense. He knows that his mistakes should not be placed on a platform that frightens the rest of the society but which define the fairest way of
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Modern culture - Essay Example Sennet (1999, p. 146) describes the flexible capitalism as more personal rather than general. The modern economy has resulted into a new form of capitalism in which the business organization only cares about the strategic direction to take. Sennet (1999, p.145-146) describes such organizations as having powers to let go. The new capitalism is a sociological danger to the employees of the different companies of the world. It has not only made modern work illegible and modern employees Ã¢â¬Ëprecarious workersÃ¢â¬â¢ but also resulted into flexibility that has destroyed the societal foundations of the different communities of the world. The modern economy therefore has everything to do with the troubles and difficulties faced by the different employees in the different work places today. The American workers have to therefore match the computers in terms of efficiency, speed, accuracy and even productivity or else they will all be laid off in future. Sennett (1999, p. 74-75) argues that the introduction of computers and computer integrated systems in the different machines has highly simplified and reduced the tasks of the employees. The workers no longer toil to get things done; everything gets done by just Ã¢â¬Ëa press of a buttonÃ¢â¬â¢ (Broekens, 2009, p. 94-103). As much as it is an advantage to the employees, it is a great problem. Employees have found a way of evading the hard tasks (Sennett, 1999, p. 72). They eventually end up staying for quite a long time without performing certain tasks and slowly by slowly their skills deplete. What happens when the machines break down or experience malfunctions? Sennett (1999, 72-73) articulates a similar scenario when the dough-kneading machine broke down in the bakery firm. The production activities came to a stand-still since the workers hundred percent depended on the machine make dough. The workers never even possessed the simple engineering skills of repairing the machine ( Sennett, 1999, p. 73). Redundancy and
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Theories Definition Essay This essay discusses theory in a general perspective and some related concepts underpinning it. Kuhn is also presented as an example of an alternative theorist. Theories, according to Littlejohn (1992) are abstractions or frameworks for speculating, interpreting, guessing, understanding, evaluating, rationalizing, explaining or predicting complexity of phenomena, events, ideas, mathematical or logical discussions, human relations, and communication through observation and critical thinking. The basic elements of theories are (1) concepts, which are usually categorized, and (2) explanation, which identifies patterns in the relationships among variables and can be casual or practical. Theory, in a traditional perspective, is based on the premise of Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge as discoveryÃ¢â¬ . It is modeled on the experimental natural sciences through hypothetico-deductive method that includes four processes: (1) developing questions, (2) forming hypotheses, (3) testing the hypotheses, and (4) formulating theory. This method can be done through variable analysis and it is based on the concepts of hypothesis, operationism, control and manipulation, covering laws, and prediction. Littlejohn cites Robyn Penman in describing alternative paradigm through the following five tenets: (1) Action is voluntary. (2) Knowledge is created socially. (3) Theories are historical. (4) Theories affect the reality they are covering. (5) Theories are value laden. The concept of metatheory is used in discussing the criticisms of the work of Kuhn because it describes and explains the similarities and differences among theories. The critics of Kuhn have also their own set of ideas or theories in explaining why KuhnÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are not accepted. Metatheory issues are grouped into three Major themes Ã¢â¬â epistemology (questions of knowledge), ontology (questions of existence), and axiology (questions of value). Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1992-1996), an American natural scientist and contemporary philosopher who contributed in the evolution of science principles, has contributed much in the history of and issues on science, culture, and policy in the academic, political, and business fields. KuhnÃ¢â¬â¢s SSR provides his antithetical views in the philosophy of science in which, like Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend, Kuhn emphasized the role and nature of Ã¢â¬Å"rationalityÃ¢â¬ in the processes of science. Kuhn contends that Ã¢â¬Å"science operates as a social structure rather than as an impersonal entity advancing toward epistemological commitmentÃ¢â¬ (Mackie, 1998, p. 25). He contradicts the concept of logical positivism which states that scientists choose between competing theories in a purely rational fashion (Philosophy of Science, 2004). Like William Whewell, Kuhn denies the overly systematic approach to science or the scientific method as the framework for inquiry (Prosise, Miller, Mills, 1996; Mackie, 1998; Roberts, 2000; Nickles, 2003). In SSR, Kuhn presented issues on the nature of and the role of community in scientific development. Thus, paradigm depends on the community to which a practitioner belongs (Roberts, 2000). He interprets the history of science based on the development of Ã¢â¬Å"paradigms,Ã¢â¬ which are not just simple theories but also Ã¢â¬Å"accepted examples of actual scientific practice [that] provide models from which spring particular coherent traditions of scientific researchÃ¢â¬ (Kuhn 1970, 4, 10). Paradigms provide new information about the world and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior (Swirski, 1996; Mackie, 1998; Roberts, 2000). Kuhn argues that scientific thought advances through intellectually violent revolutions (Copulos, 2001). This asserts KuhnÃ¢â¬â¢s statement the evolution of science is characterized by alternating periods of Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"revolutionaryÃ¢â¬ scientific activity, with the periods of normal science being far more common (Mackie, 1998, p. 27). For instance, a paradigm shift can be seen in the practice of medicine since alternative medicine has been discovered to be also a promising way of treating diseases but it remains a controversy (Copulos, 2001). It appears that the paradigm cannot be fully developed and evaluated solely in a rational manner based on the verification of facts. This approach impacts on the philosophy of science since it is accepted that a paradigm becomes a prerequisite to Ã¢â¬Å"understanding why revolutionary science occurs and why periods of normal science persistÃ¢â¬ (Mackie, 1998, p. 28). Kuhn is criticized in his vision of scientific revolution which was seen as maligned for its seemingly inconclusive historical perspective; his description of normal science because it implicitly redefined scientific activity; and his ambiguous usage of the term Ã¢â¬Å"paradigmÃ¢â¬ in different ways (Mackie, 1998). Specifically, Israel Scheffler (1967) argued that Kuhn is a radical irrationalist, subjectivist, irrealist, and relativist because he denies that science provides the basis for objective truth about reality at the perceptual-phenomenal level. Nickles (2003) adds that: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Kuhn as a principal source of postmodern relativism and of culture-theoretical treatments of science generallyÃ¢â¬ ¦Other critics view Kuhn as intellectually conservative in important ways. ..Kuhn differed rather little from the logical positivists on crucial issues, especially assumptions about language and meaning. Ã¢â¬ ¦Kuhns work is also politically conservative and elitist, so much so that, owing to its great influence, it has destroyed any attempt to develop a more democratic science policy for the foreseeable futureÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). Despite the criticisms he received, Kuhn was able to defend his theories by defining his terms more carefully. His second edition of SSR (1970) made amendments and used Ã¢â¬Å"disciplinary matrixÃ¢â¬ to substitute for Ã¢â¬Å"paradigmÃ¢â¬ (Mackie, 1998). In the third edition of SSR, Kuhn denied the accusation of relativism and he further clarified his views to avoid misinterpretation (Dyson, 1999). The changes made by Kuhn in SSR shows development from ambiguity to a clearer explanation. As Littlejohn (1992) notes, theories are constantly evolving and they need to be mastered. As an alternative-paradigm theorist, Kuhn did the process of Ã¢â¬Å"fine-tuning interpretive framework for understanding the flow of eventsÃ¢â¬ (p. 25). Although Kuhn was criticized for his theories in his SSR, it is undeniable that his theories played significant role in describing, although not accurately, the development of science principles. KuhnÃ¢â¬â¢s theory focused on rational assessment of ideas and it suits disciplines outside normal science because it is irrelevant to philosophy of science but is significant in the analysis of human behavior. References Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy of Science.Ã¢â¬ (2004). The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th edition. New York: Columbia University Press. Dyson, F. (1999). The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet: Tools of Scientific Revolutions. Oxford University Press, Inc.. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Littlejohn, S. (1992). Chapter 2: Theory in the process of inquiry, Theories of Human Communication. Wadsworth Publishing Co, 25. Mackie, C. D. (1998). Canonizing Economic Theory: How Theories and Ideas Are Selected in Economics. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. Milton R. Copulos, (November 12, 2001). A Shift in Thinking about Medicine. Insight on the News 17(42), 46. Nickles, T. (ed.) (2003). Thomas Kuhn. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Prosise, T. O., Miller, Greg R., Mills, Jordan P. (1996). Argument Fields as Arenas of Discursive Struggle: Argument Fields and Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Social Practice. Argumentation and Advocacy 32(3), 111+. Roberts, L. J. (2000). Thomas Kuhns the Structure of Scientific Revolutions. ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, 57(1), 59. Swirski, P. (1996). Game Theory in the Third Pentagon: A Study in Strategy and Rationality. Criticism 38(2), 303+.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I Trade Unionism In the second half of the nineteenth century trade unionism became much more recognized by governments. The government recognized that it is the right of workers to organize. This fundamental common law principle became a freedom of contract or the concept that people should be free to make bargains with each other and that the law should enforce such contracts if necessary. This became legalized in the year 1871 and by the year 1875 picketing also became legal. By the year 1884 these unions became legalized by FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s Third Republic and also in Germany in 1890. These unions became corporations able to own property and to sue and be sued. This enabled these unions to protect their funds from defaulting officials. By mid way through the century the main focus of these unions was to organize skilled workers and to improve the working conditions and the wages for the workers. However, by the end of the century unions began to focus more on work for unskilled workers. This b ecame the first time that there were more unskilled workers than skilled workers in the workplace. In the decade before World War I most of the workers were still not unionized. Democracy and Political Parties The late nineteenth century was a great time of improvement for democratic electoral systems. The British passed their second voting reform act in 1867 and then passed a third in 1884. Also in 1871 Bismarck gave universal male suffrage for the German Empire. This had an effect on many other countries as well. Switzerland followed this and adopted universal male suffrage in 1879, Spain did in 1890, Belgium in 1893, Netherlands in 1896, Norway in 1898, and finally Italy i... ... Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American RelationsÃ¢â¬ LaborÃ¢â¬â¢s Great War http://sunsite.unc.edu uncpress/books/ fall97/mccartin.html This article was not that useful to me because most of it dealt with America - Norris,Nicole Ã¢â¬Å"Boldy going where no British Society has gone beforeÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ The Fabian Society 1996 http://www.hput.edu/Academics/English/fabian.htm This article was very useful to me. It gave me a lot of information on Fabianism. - Partington, Geoffrey Ã¢â¬Å"Trade Unionism and the New Protection http://www.exhibit.com.au/~~nicholls/nicholls/nichvol16/vol16/vol166tr.htm This article gave me a lot of useful information on trade unionism - Ã¢â¬Å"Bolshevism vs. ReformismÃ¢â¬ Historical Perspective http://www.plp.org/pl-_magazine/pyatnits.html This article helped me better understand Bolshevism
Sunday, January 12, 2020
What is it? This links personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual. Its main focus is the extent to which an individual is motivated to attain success. Some Theories about it Ã Murray (1938) indicated that it was natural for individual to strive to surpass another (genetically) like trait. Bandura (1977) believed that a competitive drive was a product of learning (social learning). Atkinson and McCelland (1976) has the view of an interactionist and predicts achievement motivation is generated through a combination of personality and situation factors. Atkinson and McCelland view of achievement motivation as a personality trait which is activated by a situation, the situation comprises the probability of success and the incentive value of success. -Probability of success;the extent to which success is likely;For example success is more likely of the task is found by the individual to be easy. -Incentive value of success;the incentive value experienced by the individual after success-been achieved. For example the harder the task the greater will be the incentive value because the probability of success is reduced. There are two personality types to determine achievement motivation and these are; 1.High need to achieve (high Nach) Linked with the low need to avoid failure (Low Naf). With these characteristic, desire to succeed overcomes the fear of failure. These performers=high in achievement motivation (high achievers) 2.Low need to achieve (Low Nach) Also linked with high need to avoid failure (High Naf). These characteristics the fear of failure overcome the desire to success. These performers=low in achievement motivation (low achievers) Characteristics of high and low achievement motivation personality traits. High Nach Personality Characteristics Low Nach personality characteristics High need to achieve Low need to achieve Low need to avoid failure High need to avoid failure Approach behaviour is adopted Avoidance behaviour is adopted Challenges is accepted Challenges is rejected Risks are undertaken Risks are declined Shows persistence and perseverance when task is difficult Curtails effort when task is difficult Success tends to be attributed to external factors Failure tends to be attributed to internal factors Failure is seen as a route to success Failure is seen as the route to further failure Aspire to mastery orientation Adopt learned helpessness Key Terms Approach behaviour-describes behaviour that accepts a challenge Avoidance behaviour-describes behaviour that rejects a challenge Attribution-The process that predict reasons for success or failure Mastery Orientation-The strong motive to succeed found in the high achievement. This type of person will expect to succeed but will persist when failure is experienced Learned helplessness-The belief that failure is inevitable and that the individual has no control over the factors that cause failure. Atkinson and McCelland Their theory of achievement motivation is best at predicting behavioural responses in situations where there is a 50/50 chance of success. This will trigger motivation for those performers with high achievement traits=likelyÃ to display approach behaviour and mastery orientation characteristics in these circumstances. Incentive value=high when chance is evenly balanced. In contrast to performers who show low achievement motivation would experience greatest anxiety in situations with a 50/50 chance of successÃ¢â¬â later adopt avoidance behaviour and experience learned helplessness. Approach or avoidance behaviours likely to arise when in a evaluative situation=Situation in which an individual believes they are being assessed. Drawbacks 1.Achievement or success can interpreted in many ways. Some performers regard success as victory over others. For example a long jump athlete winning an event. These people are said to have ego goal orientation. Those with this believe that ability and comparison over others=criteria for success. 2.Others judge on the basis of person improvement in a given task-For example a second long jump athlete may view success as the achievement of an improved performance. These people are said to have task orientation. Those with the task orientation value internal goals and believe that effort and comparison with self=criteria for success. Sport Specific Achievement Motivation(Competitiveness) Competitiveness in this context means- motivation to achieve in sport. Gill and Deeter (1988), using their own test called the Ã¢â¬ËSport Orientation QuestionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢ (SOQ), confirmed that athletes were far more competitive than non-athletes. As as statement, this would appear obvious. Evidence of greater significance-athletes favoured performance goals (task orientation) while non-athletes emphasised the importance of winning (ego orientation) The type of goal set by the teacher as the measure of success in sport-related activities has, therefore, a significant influence upon the decision to adopt and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle. The important association between sport-specific motivation (competitiveness), confidence and goal setting.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The History during 1931 and how much things changed during the period over time, 83 years ago. How humans are getting cloned for having diseases, how women were having sex with so many men without them being known as tramps, how people walk the earth with no regrets but now people live and regret. In 1931, people was getting cloned for having diseases, but as time changed its illegal now diseases can be cured. But for the fact being in the future and in the past time has changed and many differences were made. In his Dystopian Society Huxley portrays masses of niches where the government produces clones for specific reasons. Huxley decides throughout Brave New World that cloning humans is unethical. He then becomes in contact with the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful Alphas and Betas clones. Huxley suggest in BNW that lower class groups in cloning humans to act like servants to terrorize them into working hard conditions. Cloning is becoming more and more prominent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Scientists are beginning to clone animals for use in experiments and for other uses, including medical advancement. In fact, researchers now talk about the effects cloning could have on the eliminations of certain diseases in human beings. Although Aldous became more obsessed in humanism he wanted to experience spiritual religion based on writing BNW on what the future may turn out to be years from now. However the book is mostly made up of science fiction people still today believe that the worldShow MoreRelatedA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley668 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn Brave New World, there are similarities that have a deeper meaning that we can understand. There are personal effects in Aldous Huxley life that contribute to what he has written in the book. Aldous Huxley throughout his life have seen, done, and events have happened to him, just like all of us, but he has expressed it in his book. So when Aldous wrote the he had so many ideas. I have read the book; itÃ¢â¬â¢s notRead MoreBrave New World by Aldous Huxley811 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Brave New World is based around characters who gave up the right of freedom for happiness; characters who ignored the truth so that they could live in a utopian civilization. The deceiving happiness was a constant reminder throughout the book. Almost every character in Brave New World did whatever they could to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. In this society, happiness is not compatible with the truth because the World State believes that happiness was at the expense of theRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Brave New Feminist The novel Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley in 1932 is known for its social satire, utopian values, and unusual standpoints on stereotypical gender roles. In this time where futuristic technology has completely taken over, and men and women are given the same opportunities for everything, Ã¢â¬Å"the genders appear equal within the social order; both men and women work at the same jobs, have equal choice in sexual partners, and participate in the same leisure pursuitsÃ¢â¬ (MarchRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the world of sex, drugs, and baby cloning you are going to be in many situations where you feel like the world we live in should be different. In the story Brave New World, they had sex with multiple partners along with a very bad use of drugs. It is weird that Aldous Huxley wrote this book in 1931 about the world he was living in during that time and how it is similar to the world we live in today. Nowadays, drugs are still being used and people are still engaging in sexual encounters withRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia in Brave New World foreshadowed and illuminated the complications within modern day society. Upon its release, the narrative became widely banned all over the United States due to the unorthodox thoughts and actions of multiple characters in it. Early readers, as well as modern day audiences, feared and rejected the ideals that Huxley incorporated into his perfect society; however, our society today is heading towards the dark paths the older generations desired to avoid. Read MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley tells of a society where everyone is the same but, compared to t odayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, everything is different. Huxley tells of a world where everything that happens or takes place is because of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own desire and nothing more. The hero in the novel, a Ã¢â¬Å"savageÃ¢â¬ named John, is HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s main focal point. It is through his eyes and mind that the reader sees whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on. Now when I read this novel, I began to think, Ã¢â¬Å"Could this perfect, conformed world actuallyRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimperfect world and is usually only a hopeful dream. These types of worlds can greatly be described in detail through the world of science fiction. Aldous Huxley was an English writer who lived during a time when war and chaos were engulfing the world. His works reflect his view and thoughts on a dystopia, which is a false utopia, and describes what could occur in possible governments of the world. The ability to understand and dive into the thoughts of the author is what make s world literatureRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley614 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesthem truly happy. What if someone were to tell you that what you thought was true happiness was all an illusion. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley people in the world state are conditioned and drugged up by soma to not experience true happiness. In a world that is perfect, human beings do not have to depend on drugs to keep our world in balance. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley there is always a perfect drug called soma that keeps everyone happy, which they have based their society on. ThisRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWelcome to a world were Ã¢â¬Å"BraveÃ¢â¬ is not just a word; It has a true meaning. This is a story were everything as you know it, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be right and will completely change your way of thinking. When this story was written, life was very harsh for many peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦.Mostly for the author who wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ During this time (1930s) they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much sexual content Living The Future Of The Past In The PresentÃ¢â¬ ¦.. In the air; But Aldous made a future full of sex for them and we are theRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Brave New World shares a variety of similarities and differences with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society like drug use, love and marriage, religion, and technology. This novel explains the way at which a government was made to create a perfect society. This society was divided into five different classes. Each class held a different role or responsibility in the government, similar to our government today. Although this Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ society was created, it turned out to have many flaws. Some individuals, like Bernard
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Geodes are a type of rock containing crystals. Normally, millions of years are required for flowing water and minerals to deposit crystals. You can make your own geode in only a few days. Grow beautiful translucent blue crystals of copper sulfate pentahydrate inside an egg shell to make your own geode. This project is of average difficulty and will take 2 to 3 days to finish. What You Need An eggHot waterCopper sulfate Heres How to Do It First, you need to prepare the eggshell. A natural geode forms inside a mineral. For this project, the mineral is the calcium carbonate of an eggshell. Carefully crack open an egg, discard the egg, and keep the shell. Clean the egg from the shell. Try for a clean break, to create two halves of the shell, or you may wish to just remove the top of the shell, for a more ball-shaped geode.In a separate container, add copper sulfate to 1/4 cup of hot water. The amount of copper sulfate isnt exact. You want to stir copper sulfate into the water until no more will dissolve. More is not better! It should take a few pinches of solid material to make a saturated solution.Pour the copper sulfate solution into the eggshell.Place the eggshell in a location where it can remain undisturbed for 2 to 3 days. You may want to place the eggshell in another container to keep it from falling over.Observe your geode each day. Crystals should appear by the end of the first day and will be at their best afte r the second or third day.You can pour out the solution and allow your geode to dry after a couple of days or you can let the solution fully evaporate (aÃ week or two). Tips for Making a Geode of Copper Sulfate Crystals Even a small increase in the temperature of the water will greatly affect the amount of copper sulfate (CuS04 . 5H20) that will dissolve.Copper sulfate is harmful if swallowed and can irritate skin and mucous membranes. In case of contact, rinse skin with water. If swallowed, give water and call a physician.Copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals contain water, so if you want to store your finished geode, keep it in a sealed container. Otherwise, water will evaporate from the crystals, leaving them dull and powdery. The gray or greenish powder is the anhydrous form of copper sulfate.The archaic name for copper (II) sulfate is blue vitriol.Copper sulfate is used in copper plating, blood tests for anemia, in algicides and fungicides, in textile manufacturing, and as a desiccant.